|  e-ISSN: 2757-6620

Volume 2 Issue 2 (December 2021)

Issue Information

FULL ISSUE (Volume 2 Issue 2)

pp. i - vi



Original Articles

Abundance of Culturable Marine Heterotrophic Bacteria in Ulva lactuca Associated with Farmed Seaweeds Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma denticulatum

Albaris B. Tahiluddin, Tadzmahal I. Alawi, Nurul Syakila A. Hassan, Sitti Nurhaliza A. Jaji, Ertugrul Terzi

pp. 44 - 47   |  DOI: 10.29329/agripro.2021.360.1


Ulva lactuca is one of the macro-epiphytes of farmed seaweeds Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma denticulatum in Tawi-Tawi, southern Philippines, especially during the summer season, which affects the growth and health of farmed seaweeds. In this study, the abundance of culturable heterotrophic marine bacteria from U. lactuca associated with farmed seaweeds Kappaphycus spp. and E. denticulatum was investigated in the seaweed farms of Tongsibalo, Sibutu, Tawi-Tawi, southern Philippines, using serial dilution procedure. Results revealed that the average bacterial counts obtained from U. lactuca associated with Kappaphycus alvarezii, K. striatus, and E. denticulatum were 2.48 x 1010 CFU g-1, 1.14 x 1012 CFU g-1, and 1.32 x 1011 CFU g-1, respectively. In addition, agar-digesting bacteria were observed from U. lactuca samples associated with K. alvarezii and K. striatus manifested by the depression and liquefaction of the marine agar after 2-3 days which were suspected as pathogenic bacteria causing ice-ice disease. Therefore, U. lactuca may serve as a vector for these potential pathogens to farmed seaweeds.

Keywords: Seaweed, Heterotrophic marine bacteria, Eucheuma denticulatum, Kappaphycus, Ulva lactuca

Alleviation of the Germination Inhibitory Effect of Salt Stress in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds by Serotonin

Oguzhan Araz, Ertan Yildirim, Melek Ekinci

pp. 48 - 54   |  DOI: 10.29329/agripro.2021.360.2


Salinity stress is one of the important factors affecting all growth processes, from seed germination to seedling development, plant growth, yield and quality. In this study, the effects of serotonin treatments on the germination of pepper seeds (Capsicum annum L.) under salt stress were investigated. Different doses of salt (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl) and serotonin (S0:0 µM, S1:5 µM, S2:10 µM, S3:15 µM, S4: 20 µM) were used. The applied seeds were placed between the papers in petri dishes, watered with the prepared salt solutions and left to germinate at 25 °C. In the study, parameters related to germination percentage, germination speed, mean germination time, daily mean germination time, peak value and germination value were investigated. As a result of the research, it was determined that the germination of pepper seeds decreased in parallel with increasing salt concentrations, and this negative effect of salt stress decreased with serotonin applications. Although it changes depending on the serotonin doses, it has been observed that significant effects occur on the measured germination parameters, and the best germination was observed at S1 and S2 doses. It is thought that the application of serotonin will have positive effects on the germination of pepper seeds under salt stress, and these effects may also occur during the plant growth period.

Keywords: Germination, Pepper, Salt, Serotonin, Stress

The Comparison of Structure of Existing Stable with Standards of Stable Requested in IPARD Program in Erzurum Central Districts, Turkey

Erkan Efekan, Bahar Kocaman

pp. 55 - 66   |  DOI: 10.29329/agripro.2021.360.3


Erzurum is one of the provinces in Turkey where the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance Rural Development (IPARD)  program will be implemented in the first stage. In this study, we determined the status of the existing enterprises in Erzurum and measured their capacity to comply with the IPARD program in relation to the "Investments for Restructuring Agricultural Enterprises and Reaching Community Standards" measure. This was conducted in 33 barns in 11 villages in the central districts of Erzurum Province. The current situation of animal shelters in central districts of Erzurum province was compared with European Union (EU) standards required in animal shelters. In addition, rural development and the basis on which documents give directions in Turkey, IPARD, and IPARD measures related to the subject of study are given general information. It has been concluded that the existing animal shelters in Erzurum are generally far from the EU standards required within the scope of the IPARD program, and it is challenging for existing animal shelters to meet EU standards by modernizing them. Therefore, in Erzurum province, it will be appropriate for the livestock enterprises that want to take advantage of the IPARD program's “Investments for the Restructuring of Agricultural Enterprises and Reaching Community Standards” measure, instead of modernizing their existing shelters, which the Program allows, by building new animal shelters. In addition, the Agriculture and Rural Development Support Institution, which is the implementer of the IPARD program, should inform the enterprises wishing to benefit from the program to build new animal shelters.

Keywords: EU standards, IPARD, Rural development, Stables

Heavy Metal Levels in the Beyler Dam Lake, Kastamonu (Turkey)

Khalifa Moftah Abdelali

pp. 67 - 71   |  DOI: 10.29329/agripro.2021.360.4


In this study, some heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn and Zn) were seasonally determined in water to evaluate of the quality of the Beyler Dam Lake. The average concentrations of heavy metals analyzed in water samples for cold and hot season were Cu: 11.53, 13.23; Cd: 0.85, 0.97; Pb: 13.77, 16.26; Cr: 2.88, 3.48; Mn: 1.94, 1.71; and Zn: 7.57, 8.20 ppb, respectively. The annual average (AA) concentrations of heavy metals were Cu: 12.38; Cd: 0.91, Pb: 15.01, Cr: 3.18; Mn: 1.82; and Zn: 7.88 ppb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were found to be higher in hot season than the cold season. It was observed that none of the heavy metals assessed exceeded the limits specified in the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. The Beyler Dam Lake was classified as Class I for all the heavy metals except Pb for which it was classified as Class II. These results indicate that the lake is not polluted by the heavy metals. However, relatively high Pb levels seek further research to identify the source. The lake water can be used for agricultural activities but should continue to be monitored.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Environment, Pollution, Water, Toxicity

Review Articles

Flavor in a Tea Glass to Present from Past: Safely Organic Production and Health Effects of Tea

Halit Karagöz, Fazilet Parlakova Karagöz, Erdim Erduran, Ramazan Çakmakçı

pp. 72 - 85   |  DOI: 10.29329/agripro.2021.360.5


Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is the second most-consumed non-alcoholic beverage in the world after water. The health-beneficial properties of tea, known to contain more than 4000 bioactive substances, of which about one-third consist of polyphenols, are increasingly well understood. The medicinal properties of the tea plant have been proven by laboratory and clinical studies to have an anti-cancer effect, benefits for dental health, protect against Alzheimer with anti-paralytic, anti-diabetic, and antiparkinson properties, and its use against skin diseases. However, it is known that the tea plant, which requires plenty of fertilizer, can cause excessive pollution of the groundwater when chemical fertilizers are washed away with precipitation in the areas where it is grown. In order to eliminate this negative situation, studies regarding organic and microbial fertilizers that are more environmentally friendly and do not harm the soil and human health that could be substituted for chemical fertilizers as much as possible or mitigate their use and enable to grow products of adequate amount and quality should be accelerated. The aim of this review is to bring together scientific information about the characteristics and health effects of tea and organic tea cultivation.

Keywords: Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, Chemical content, Microbial fertilizer, Organic tea